Djoser, also spelled Zoser, was the second king of Egypt‘s third dynasty (c. 2650–c. 2575 BCE), and he managed the construction of Egypt’s first significant stone building. His reign, which lasted probably 19 years, was characterised by significant technological innovation in the use of stone architecture. Imhotep, his minister and a gifted architect and physician, was later deified.
The king constructed a funerary complex at Saqqara, outside the royal capital of Memphis, with the assistance of Imhotep (southwest of modern Cairo). The innovative structure was built entirely of stone, a departure from the traditional use of mud bricks in conjunction with stone. The most significant advancement, however, was a complete transformation of the monument’s shape from a flat-topped rectangular structure
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